It is a useful design when not much is known about an issue or phenomenon. Spatially, cross-national comparisons are by far the most common, although comparisons within countries, contrasting different areas, cultures or governments also subsist and are very constructive, especially in a country like New Zealand, where policy often changes depending on which race it pertains to.
In exploratory study it often happens that you need gradually add new aspects of comparison, or have to redefine them when your knowledge of the object increases.
If the criteria for selecting a case is because it represents a very unusual or unique phenomenon or problem for study, then your intepretation of the findings can only apply to that particular case.
Familiarity with basic details, settings, and concerns. In comparative research, data are collected primarily by observation, and the goal is to determine similarities and differences that are related to the particular situation or environment of the two groups.
Comparison may be useful even when the researcher is not interested in differences but in a single case. There are no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher.
Among her study objects were twelve steam irons, five of which are presented in the photo above. The exploratory nature of the research inhibits an ability to make definitive conclusions about the findings.
Approach provides the highest level of evidence for single studies.
Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitative research designs with the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively. Powerpoint Presentation; Shuttleworth, Martyn.
Comparison may be useful even when the researcher is not interested in differences but in a single case. Handbook of Action Research: The historical approach is well suited for trend analysis.
Determination about whether a study is feasible in the future. In cases where a comparative analysis of two cohorts is made [e.
The cross-sectional design can only measure differences between or from among a variety of people, subjects, or phenomena rather than a process of change. The case study research design is also useful for testing whether a specific theory and model actually applies to phenomena in the real world. Cross-Sectional Design Definition and Purpose Cross-sectional research designs have three distinctive features: The two main choices within this model are comparing two stages in time either snapshots or time-seriesor just comparing the same thing over time, to see if a policy's effects differ over a stretch of time.
Two key factors are space and time. Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important recommendations in practice. Or you can study the same type of products as they are used in the same circumstances but in different countries.
These studies contain both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Subsequent experimental designs have used more groups and more measurements over longer periods. Personal over-involvement of the researcher may bias research results.
Columbia University Press, ; Chapter 2: This technique often utilizes multiple disciplines in one study. Because cross-sectional designs generally use survey techniques to gather data, they are relatively inexpensive and take up little time to conduct.
The historical comparative research involves comparing different time-frames. Not all relationships are casual.
She found out that when studying each specimen in separation it was not easy to grasp its symbolic message; it became easier when the object was studied together with other similar objects or when two objects could be compared to each other.
Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions.
The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in. On Day 2, we will locate comparative research designs vis-à-vis other research designs, i.e.
within the whole range of possible designs. We will also present all the practical steps of a ‘good’ comparative research design, with a focus on the major arbitrations to be made. Comparative case studies can be useful to check variation in program implementation. Each context and environment is different.
The comparative case study can help the evaluator check whether the program theory holds for each different context and environment. Qualitative research and comparative methods. Uploaded by.
common sense and rigor in design strategy Comparative methods Kaarbo and Beasley () Step 1: Identify Specific Research Question for Focused Comparison ―How‖ and ―why‖ questions focused on underlying process(es) Identify the class of phenomena: ―What is this a case.
Case study research has a long history within the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, dating back to the early 's. At first it was a usefu. Comparative research is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across This technique often utilizes multiple disciplines in one study.
The multidisciplinary approach is good for the flexibility it offers, yet comparative programs do have a case to answer against the call that their research .Comparative case study research design